Volume 1 Issue 2
Why to Buy a Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulator on a Pulmonary Rehabilitation Premise in Less Developed Countries?
Laura D Ciobanu* MD, PhD, FERS, Dragica P Pesut MD, PhD, Govind N Srivastava MD, PhD
Among various techniques used in pulmonary rehabilitation programmes, neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) is an affordable, largely applicable and efficient method to improve overall function in patients suffering from a variety of lung disease. Its role in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease has been well established. NMES is accessible and can be easily utilized by physiotherapists and patients. NMES is frequently used in western countries; however, in less developed or low-resource countries clinicians may not be familiar with NMES. The purpose herein is to describe the role of NMES in pulmonary rehabilitation to analyse potential limitations for its use in some countries.
Serum Biomarkers Predicting the Outcome in Patients with Acute Exacerbation of Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis
Shingo Harita*, Kohei Miyake, Satoru Senoo, Kiichiro Ninomiya, Tomoki Tamura, Toshio Kubo, Etsuko Kurimoto, Genyo Ikeda, Toshiaki Okada
Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is the most common type of idiopathic interstitial pneumonia and carries a devastating prognosis of 2-3 years median survival from the time of diagnosis. In the natural history of IPF, the disease usually progresses slowly, but some patients may suffer acute deterioration in respiratory status. Many of these cases are of unknown etiology and have been termed acute exacerbations (AE) of IPF, which are sometimes fatal. In a recent report, Song et al. demonstrated that 1- and 3-year incidences of AE of IPF were 14.2% and 20.7%, respectively.
Air Pollution and its Effects on Global Health
Mohammad Hosein Kalantar Motamedi*, Ali Ebrahimi, Zahra Danial
Outdoor air pollution is known to cause millions of deaths worldwide; it also increases the risk of respiratory and cardiovascular diseases. In 2012, the WHO reported 3.7 million deaths attributable to ambient air pollution and 4.3 million deaths due to household air pollution. In new estimates, it reports that one in eight of all global deaths are due to air pollution.This figure more than doubles previous estimates and confirms that air pollution is now the world’s largest single environmental health hazard.
Quantitative High-Resolution CT Analysis of Air Trapping and Airway Thickening in Patients with COPD
Isabel Pino Peña, M.Sc., Morten Vuust, M.D., Helene Møller Nielsen, M.D, Ulla Møller Weinreich, M.D, Jesper Carl, Ph.D., Lasse Riis Østergaard, Ph.D
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is the leading global cause of death, with a prevalence that is predicted to increase. COPD is diagnosed by spirometry, with a post-bronchodilator value of the ratio between forced expiratory volume in the first second and forced vital capacity (FEV1/FVC) < 0.7. The disease has a heterogeneous presentation as chronic and largely irreversible airways obstruction which usually comprises chronic bronchitis and emphysema. COPD may lead to excessive retention of air in the lungs which is known as air trapping. Air trapping refers to an abnormal retention of air in the lungs, especially during or after expiration, caused by airway obstruction.
A Case of Rapidly Progressive Miliary Tuberculosis with Renal Involvement
John Tran*, Brian Kwong, Murali Krishna
Miliary tuberculosis can be a challenging disease to diagnose due to its non-specific symptoms and variation in clinical presentation. Prior reports of miliary tuberculosis show lung manifestations of different shapes and sizes that are often mistaken for other diseases. Here, we have a 64 year-old female who initially presented with non-specific symptoms and a unique respiratory process on diagnostic imaging which progressed to multiple pulmonary nodules within a two week time span. In addition, patient developed acute kidney injury that progressed to acute renal failure requiring hemodialysis and later became hemodialysis-independent after starting anti-tuberculosis medication.
Phenotypic Variance in COPD: Recent Developments in Clinical, Radiographic and Molecular Aspects, and Relevance to Management Strategies
Khadir Kakal, Santhi Kumar, Ahmet Baydur*
COPD is a heterogeneous disease. Subcategories of COPD used currently are nonspecific and future subgrouping increasingly needs novel approaches. Understanding COPD susceptibility depends on pursuing genome-wide studies that elucidate phenotyping and genotyping. Genes that are identified should be localized within molecular pathways to assess the role of these networks in disease pathogenesis. Once critical pathways are identified, means to inhibit those pathways should lead to disease- modifying therapy. The diversity in symptoms, clinical responsiveness and quality of life in these patients, separating patients into subgroups may lead to more meaningful assessment to response to therapy.