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December 2015

Volume 1  Issue 3
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Research Article

Favourable Prognosis when Lung-Cancer Patients with Superior Vena Cava Obstruction (SVCO) are Referred Promptly to EBUS-TBNA Prior to Medical or Surgical Management

Leon G. D’Cruz*, Bassam Younes, F. Anthony Lai, Syed Arshad Husain

Primary care patients with superior vena cava obstruction (SVCO) syndrome are usually referred to emergency departments for urgent medical management (high-dose corticosteroids to reduce inflammation), pre-biopsy radiotherapy and/or stent placements to restore patency to the vessel. Biopsy, diagnosis and staging of the mediastinal mass is often postponed until resolution of SVCO symptoms. However, lung cancers metastasise rapidly and delays can influence the eventual outcome of patients. An additional merit in treating SVCO symptoms post-biopsy is that high-dose corticosteroids and pre-biopsy radiotherapy will degrade the quality of biopsy specimens, complicating diagnosis and subsequent management.

  

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Mini Review

The Impact of Acid-Base Imbalance on the Diaphragm (a Mini Review)

Robert S. Fitzgerald*

In these days of beautiful cell, sub-cell, gene explorations few studies focus on the performance of an organ and the mechansims responsible for that performance. For the pulmonary clinician it might be helpful to review how different forms of acid-base imbalance affect one of the pumps responsible for providing the organism with oxygen, the diaphragm (D).

  

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Case Report

Malignant Abdominal Mesothelioma Presenting with Features of Superior Vena Cava Syndrome. A Case Report

Athanasia Proklou, Evaggelos Maridakis, Evaggelia E Vassalou, Eumorfia Kondili*

Superior vena cava (SVC) syndrome is life threatening clinical condition caused by obstruction of the SVC either by extrinsic compression or by internal thrombus. More than 80% of cases of SVCS are caused by malignant mediastinal tumors. Herein we report a rare case of superior vena cava syndrome as first manifestation of abdominal malignant mesothelioma.

  

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Short Communication

Do Sleep Parameters or Cognitive Level Predict CPAP Adherence in Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome?

Saunamäki Tiia* PhD, Huhtala Heini MSc, Himanen Sari-Leena MD, PhD

Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome is characterized by repetitive episodes of upper airway obstruction during sleep and results in oxygen desaturation and arousals from sleep. Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) treatment is a first-line treatment in OSAS. It provides a constant positive airway pressure to the upper airway preventing collapses and stimulating normal breathing. CPAP normalizes oxyhemoglobin saturation, reduces number of apnea and hypopnea (apnea-hypopnea index, AHI) and sleep fragmentation, and has a positive effect on daytime symptoms such as sleepiness, cognitive changes and mood disorders.

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Integrative Review

Instruments Measuring Risk Factors Predicting Hospitalization for Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: An Integrative Review

Patricia Conley* , Mathew J Gregoski, Ms PhD

When a patients with COPD comes to the emergency department (ED) for treatment, a tenuous balance exists in deciding, in less critical exacerbations of COPD (ECOPD), whether or not to admit the patient? Starting 2015 new regulations stipulating what is paid from healthcare funds has increased  the need for better predictors for hospitalization. Medicareand Medicaid Services define a hospital readmission as an admission within 30 days for the same diagnosis.

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Case Report

An Unusual Case of Intrapulmonary Schwannoma Associated with Sarcoidosis in Mediastinal Lymph Nodes

Rosemarie Tremblay-LeMay, Sylvain Pagé, Pietro Rinaldi, Christian Couture, Massimo Conti, Philippe Joubert

The FDG uptake in schwannoma is variable. Studies report SUV ranging from 1.9 to 7.2. This can complicate the distinction  between schwannoma, other neoplasms and non neoplastic lesions prior to histologic diagnosis. Here, we present an unusual case of intrapulmonary schwannoma associated with sarcoidosis in mediastinal lymph nodes.

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Research Article

Long-Acting Beta Agonists Decrease the Cold Development with/without Leukotriene Receptor Antagonists in Asthma Patients Treated with Inhaled Corticosteroids Over Ten Years

Terufumi Shimoda*, Yasushi Obase, Reiko Kishikawa, Tomoaki Iwanaga

Asthma symptoms are controlled during Inhaled Cortico Steroids (ICS) therapy, but while ICS is discontinued, symptoms worsen and respiratory function deteriorates. A 10-year and a 15-year study of adult asthma patients demonstrated that the reduction in forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1.0) following treatment was smaller in patients who had received ICS regularly compared to those who had not received ICS or who had used ICS irregularly.

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Short Communication

Use of the Local Anesthetic Lidocaine to Reduce Pain during Nasal Brushings

Loretta Müller*, Leon Gaugler, Selina K Steiner, Philipp Latzin

Airway epithelial cells are the first to be exposed to air-borne stressors, and are crucial for the initiation and regulation of immune responses. The ex vivo cultivation of primary nasal epithelial cells (NECs) closely mimics the human in vivo situation, and assists us in the study of their role in vitro. NECs can be obtained via superficial brushes using an easy to learn technique, and are more easily accessible compared with bronchial epithelial cells; however, performing nasal brushings in order to obtain NECs from volunteers can be painful.

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